Project Details
Funding Scheme : General Research Fund
Project Number : 14620219
Project Title(English) : Competitive Advantages in a Threatening World: Investigating Predictors of Helicopter Parenting among First-Year University Students in Hong Kong 
Project Title(Chinese) : 在危機四伏世界中的競爭優勢:以香港的大學一年級生為對象來調查直升機管教模式的預測因素的研究 
Principal Investigator(English) : Prof Hawk, Skyler 
Principal Investigator(Chinese) :  
Department : Dept of Educational Psychology
Institution : The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Co - Investigator(s) :
Prof Ng, Fei Yin Florrie
Panel : Humanities, Social Sciences
Subject Area : Psychology and Linguistics
Exercise Year : 2019 / 20
Fund Approved : 832,500
Project Status : On-going
Completion Date : 30-6-2023
Abstract as per original application
In today’s uncertain and competitive environment, parents might struggle with how to simultaneously provide support and promote self-sufficiency as their children adjust to university. “Helicopter parenting” represents an imbalance in this dynamic. Overprotective and overinvolved, helicopter parents shield children from any possible failure and provide assistance at developmentally inappropriate levels. Research both in Hong Kong and Western countries has consistently shown that helicopter parenting, although well-intentioned, is associated with students’ poorer social, emotional, and academic adjustment. Despite extensive media attention and public concern over “effects” of helicopter parenting upon Hong Kong youth, little is known about why parents engage in such behavior. In particular, helicopter parenting might be a response to evidence of youth’s adjustment difficulties or requests for help. A lack of longitudinal research makes it unclear whether previously identified associations between helicopter parenting and youth’s difficulties represent effects of parenting behavior upon youth adjustment, whether youth’s difficulties might be evoking these parental behaviors, or whether both processes might simultaneously occur. Additionally, no studies have examined how helicopter parenting might change as youth adjust to university life. Longitudinal studies focused on the environmental and psychological predictors of helicopter parenting are urgently needed, in order to promote the well-being of Hong Kong families through timely and culturally-sensitive interventions. This project is the first to investigate predictors of helicopter parenting in Hong Kong during students’ first collegiate year. We propose a reciprocal influence model, in which youth’s psychosocial and academic difficulties predict parents’ greater feelings of uncertainty and threatened self-worth. These threats, when combined with perceptions of greater social competition, predict higher levels of helicopter parenting. Greater helicopter parenting, in turn, predicts greater subsequent youth adjustment difficulties. This model will be investigated through two types of data collected from students and mothers over one year. First, extensive surveys at the beginning and end of each term will permit in-depth examination of distal predictors and processes (e.g., general youth competencies and habits, parents’ global attitudes). Second, short-term assessments will gather brief, frequent reports that allow for investigation of proximal processes (e.g., particular stressors that instigate specific helicopter behaviors), as well as how fluctuations in helicopter parenting might coincide with fluctuations in children’s academic and psychosocial well-being. Understanding how associations between helicopter parenting and youth adjustment unfold within particular families over the first year of university can provide administrators, practitioners, and families with important advice for promoting optimal adjustment and balanced family relationships.
在現今不明確和競爭激烈的環境中,當孩子進入大學時,父母可能會面對怎樣給予孩子支持同時仍能促進他們的自主能力的挑戰 ,而『直升機管教模式』就能顯出這失平衡的動態。直升機父母為了避免讓孩子去面對任何失敗,他們會不適當地過度保護並干預孩子的日常生活和發展。在香港和西方國家的研究都一直表明,直升機管教模式雖然用心良苦,但與學生的社會、情感和學業適應較差有關。儘管直升機管教模式對香港青少年的影響受到大量傳媒報導和公眾關注,但對這管教模式的行為成因的知識卻甚少,尤其是直升機管教模式的行為有可能正是應付青少年缺乏解難或尋求協助的能力的反應。由於缺乏縱向研究,目前尚不能清晰地確認直升機管教模式與青少年缺乏解難能力兩者之間的關係。究竟這是因為父母的管教模式令青少年缺乏解難能力,還是青少年缺乏解難能力從而引起父母的直升機管教模式,或是因為這兩者同時發生。此外,目前并沒有研究調查父母的直升機管教模式會否隨著青少年如何適應大學生活而改變。因此,為了促進香港家庭的福祉,以適時及文化敏感度著手,展開環境和心理預測因素對直升機管教模式進行縱向研究有著迫切的需要。 本計劃是香港首個調查大學一年級生關於「直升機管教模式」的預測因素研究。我們假設在相互影響的模型下,當青少年在社會心理和學術上遇到的困難時,可以預示父母的不確定感和他們感到自我價值受到威脅。當自我價值威脅和社會競爭同時出現時,父母的直升機管教模式會更明顯。加強了直升機管教模式,卻令青少年的適應困難問題更嚴重。這個模型將會用一年多的時間收集學生和母親的行為數據進行研究。首先,每個學期的開始和結束時都會進行廣泛的調查,深入審查遠端預測因素和過程(例如,青少年的一般能力、習慣和父母的整體態度)。其次,會進行短期評估,即頻繁地收集簡短報告來分析最近端過程(例如,引發直升機管教行為的特定壓力源),以及直升機管教模式的強弱變動會怎樣直接影響孩子的學術表現和心理社會健康的起伏。以大學一年級生為研究對象,了解直升機管教模式與青少年適應有何關聯,能讓大學管理層、輔導人員和家庭從中獲得有用的建議,從而令青少年做到最佳的調適,並促進平衡的家庭關係。
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